Human papillomavirus(HPV) is a spherical virus DNA that belongs to papilloma vacuolating virus A of Papovaviridae genus and is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens. It is the major cause of cervical cancer.

Human epidemiological data indicate that: 1. HPV can be detected in approximately 80% of the  patients’ bodies with low-grade precancerous cervical lesions. 2. HPV can be detected in 90% of the  patients’ bodies with high-grade precancerous cervical lesions. 3. HPV can be detected in virtually all women with invasive cervical cancers. This shows the importance of HPV testing for cervical cancer screening.

HPV tests provide support for early screening of cervical cancer through HPV genotyping analysis. HPV active level can be determined by detecting the presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA. The overexpression of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins is a necessary factor for HPV infection which leads to cervical cancer. During incorporation into the host cells, HPV overexpresses E6/E7; at the same time, through inhibiting tumor suppressor functions of Rb, p53, etc. and interfering with cell cycle and immune escape, etc., HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins finally cause the cells to become cancerous. In terms of HPV active level, HPV testing is more accurate than oncogenicity markers such as P16 and Ki67.

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